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Full text of "X Collection 1901"



X Collection 
INDEX 



Page:. 



Barcode Number 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



I iiiMi mil iirii mil mil <iiii iiiii mil ii 




029 767 361 
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

■■III IIIII IIIII IIKI mil mil iiiiNllii Hill mil 




029 767 362 2 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

I iiiiii IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII mil mil mil iiii mi 



029 767 363 4 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



jiijl >ij|; mil iiKi IIIII IIIII mil mil 



029 767 364 6 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

■■ill illji nil! I!l" !!!" '"" '"" '"" *"" *"*' '*" '■■! 





029 767 365 8 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

illili lilij iiii! ilili ill" '"" '"" '"" '"" '"" """ '*' '■■' 




029 767 366 A 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

IIIIII iiiii iiii! mil '!'" "'" '"" '"*' iiii^ 'IIII I'^ii IIII nil 




Box Number 



m\ 



%u 



'bid 






ms 



niQA- 



H% 3 



029 767 367 1 




Total of 
Volumes 



1;l 



I 



^5 



r 



iT. 



[O 



5 



15 



Call Number 















TA 117. A3 









rAi+5'o 



X Collection 
INDEX 



Page:_ 



Z 



Barcode Number 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

llllllllllll 

HIPIHIIIIIII MillllHIIIInlll 
029 767 368 3 



LIBRftRY OF CONGRESS 
I Hill lill !in!iii'ilillll!!l!!ll! !!!!'""•■» uim 



029 767 369 5 



Box Number 






Total of 
Volumes 



IV 



ifoo 



T 



'6 



Call Number 






(roi 



y 



TAjlo- 

rAr73^ 







m 



n 



7C 540.1^5'- 



3-UJiA>0J-J^ 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

llljlllij I !■"■ "'" '"" '"" "" '"*' '"" '■'■> III! I"l 




V?0 5 



SSE NElCT OiKkOelt 



029 767 370 1 







JAN 2 4 1935 !,.' 



(D 



COlOJISSIOi; IITTERKATIOIfiLE DES GRMDS BARRAGES 
' ■ " de la 

C«nf^euoe k«ndiale de l*Snergie 



Jr«cfea-verbal de la R^unisn jsx^outive de i<«ndres 

le iv Ootobre 1934 



# 



A 




REPORT 

OF 

SELECT C03f3[ITTEE 

TO THE 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

OF THE 

WISCONSIN LEGISLATURE, 



RELATIRG TO THE 




TOGETHER WITH THE OPINION 

OF THF , 

ATTO^RNEY O E N E R A L, 

AVn THE 

REPORT 

OF THE 

^ nOMMfTTEE ON MM'BLIC LA.\I)S. 

TO Goasrc3-:EH.Ess, 
ON THE SAME SUBJECT. IN 1f54L'. 

Reprinted aud Laid before Congress, 185a 



i^. 





MILWAUKEE : 

"AILV NBWS STKAM PaiNTING E8TABUSHMENT, MASON STIIF.RT. 



h 




t^n 



.LJ 




SOCIETE INTERNATIONALE 

D'OBTENTION DE CONCESSION f " 1- '^/ X "^^ j 

CANAL COLOMBIEN '. "^ 




DU PERCEMENT 



itK 



LiSTHME AMERICAIN 



I'AH 



M"'^ Clemence ROYER. 



* 



r 



. A 



% 




Extrait du JOURNAL DES ECOm.MISTES 
Numeros dp (I ^ *imtJjip 1871 ct Janvier IN^S 



PARIS 

LIUUAIItlE \)V. (i(JILL.\lJ.\||\ Ki (>, |-;|)ITEIJUS 

du Journal des Econom.stes, jjes Economistes «t I'ublicistes cnnicniporains 

<\f la Bibholheqiie (ies sciences morales el oolilinues, du Dictionnairf 

de l-Economie polil,r,ue, d« Dictionnaire du r.nmmcrre n d^ la ^aviRl.t,on, etc.. eir. 

RO- RICHKLIKU, 14. 

J87u 




SOGIETE DE GEOGRAPHIE 



%. J. fk:>ivJ^ 

TC 777 
' 5 
COMMISSION DE GEOGRAPHIE COMMERCIALE DE PARIS 

SECTION FRANQAISE- 

1)1- 

COMITi INTERNATIONAL D'ETUDB 

POUR L'EXPLORATION 

DE 

LISTHME AMERICAIN 

EN VUE DU PERCEMENT DUN CANAL INTEROCEANIQUE 

Bureaux a Paris, 9, rue Clary 
PROOiJS-VERBAL DE LA SEANCE DU 11 MAI 1876 



EXTRAIT DU JOURJVAL VEXPLORATEUR 



PARIS 

AUX BUREAUX DE l^EXPLORATEUR 

24 ET 26, PASSAGE COLBERT, 24 ET 26 

1876 



p 
-J 



^ 



r 

Cxamen 



"■]). 



»J(!t*W«J*Mi^ C 



^': jv 



H\ 



A,*. 4 6 



X-TC 777 ^ 




TUNNEL MARITIME 




pour le 
CANAL INTEROCEANIQUE 

propose par 

PANAMA. 



I 
n 






(U^OO-^OO mihei cube* en. Hoehea^iu>U4i^ 



(?. 0(?5 pot- nt-' 



4 




i 






(VMT. I 



^rlC 777 



r 



-3m — 



LE 




CANAL INTEROCEANIQUE 



Lf "> 



■■^^^Ji^ 



DE 



PANAMA 



OO0P D-«,t S0B tK8 T.ACBS MAMT.MKS 

PH0P0SK8 «NTB« L'atLANT.QUE ET CK PAO.noUB 

A TRAVERS L'lSTHME AMERICAIN 



LOUIS VERBRUGGHE 




PARIS 
A. QUANTIN, IMPRIMEUR 

'i Rtik SAiNT-nSNolT, 7 

1879 



— ses- 



r§ 




<' J 



-"1 



o -- . f 






J 






fWO, 38 



X-TC 777 
• 5 



<a&^ 



•r 

-J 



400 MILLIONS A L'EAU 



Prix : 50 c en. times 



EN VENTE 

A PARIS, 20, RUE DU CROISSANT 



1S7'.) 



't 



• 







LA YERITE 



- -a : 



sua ±^- 



LE GANAL I]|TER0G£A1IIQDE 






DE PANAMA 



PA.R 

LTJOIET^ I>E I»XJYI>T 

Ing^nieur; Explwateur de I'lsthme ttm^ricain; Agent gdn^ral de la 
SocWW internatiouale d'^tiides du Canal Colombien ; Membre fondateur 
de la SocWW de O^ographie de Madrid ; Menrbre titulaire de la Soci^t^ 
de Olographic de Paris; Correspondant des Soci^t^s royale de 
Olographic de Londres, de Marseille et de Bordeaux ; Membre de la 
Socidt^ m<5t^orologique de France; Membre du Conseil de la Soci^W 
des Rtiides eoloninlcfl et maritimes, etR., etc. 



La f triU eit an phan qui brill* 
k ton III ytix; miii il faat 
III aavrir. 



-» — iS2r~«- 



PARIS 

CHAKLBS SCHILLER, IMPRIMEUR BREVETE 

It, ntll liU rAUBOURG-BfONTMARTRS, It 

1879 



■"■^p'-^"'^ 



-:i^»--!- X. 



i 



.1 



X-TC 777 






AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. 

INSTITUTED 185 2. 



Nonc^This Society is uot reHpoosible, a» a body, for the facU and opinioQa advanced in auy 

of its publications. 



(Vol. IX January, 18«0.) 



INTER-OCEANIC CANAL PROJECTS 



DISCUSSIONS 

By WAiiTON W. Evans, Fbedebick M. Ket.t.ry, Charles A. Sweet, John 

C. Campjiell, Chakles D. Waed, N. Appleton, S. F. Shelboukne, 

Max E. Schmidt, Thomas J. Long and Edwabd P. Nobth. 



Discussion by Walton W. Evans. 

I beg to oiier a few remarks in diHCUssion of Mr. Menocal's paper 
on the much-vexed project of the Inter-Oceanic Canal. I wish to give, 
first, my reasons for venturing an opinion : 

Ist. I have served for seven years as an engineer in the construction 
of canals. 

•2il. I have had an experience in the constntotion of public works of 
over forty -two years. 

3d. I have crossed the Isthmus many times — partly by foot, by mule, 
by canal, and by rail. 

4th. I have been detained on the Isthmus for weeks — by rains, revo- 
lutions, and want of transportation — before the railway was buUt. 



*Intar-Oceaiilc Canal ProjecU. A. Ci. Mejioca)., No. CLX^XVm., Vol, .VQI., p«ge 31) 
(SoTembec, 1879.) 



; 



'■ --•.• .1.. I.;, iXr. 



A 



X:TC 777 

1:5 4lCy 



[\ 



I v. — MISCELLANEOUS 



No. 24. 



THE PROFOSED 



AMERICAN INTER-OCEANIC CANAL 



COMMERCIAL ASPECTS, 



JOSEPH NIMMO, Jr., 

CHIKF 01^ THE liL'RE^VT" Ol-' ST-YT r~iTI(? 



TRE.AsruY iikpai;t.mi:nt, .vrorsx r. H'-o. 



■,'Hi 



k. 



X-TC 777 



REVIEW 



or 



THE PROPOSED 



Tehuantepec Ship-Railway. 



JUNE 1, 1881. 



GIBSON BB0THEB8, PBINTEK8. 






.^Vrrtft-.* s-. 



lip^- 



Vj 



0*0-^/^*--%*.' 



..t.,^. 



/vve. 20 



if 



S( COMPAGNIE UNIVERSELLE DU CANAL INTEROCEANIOUE 



INAUGURATION 

DU 



X-TC 777 



5 '-fi 



I 



PANORAMA DU CANAL DE PANAMA--^ 1 



2* SEPTEMBRE t88j 



CONFERENCE DE M. DINGLER 

litgenicur at Chef des Touts ct Cbaussies, 
DiRECTEUR GENERAL DES TRAVAUX DU CaNAL MARITIME 



i 



Wp 



PARIS I 

Imprimerie ile la Conipagnie univcrselle du Canal maritime de Suez j 

9 , R U E C H A R H A S , 9 j 



1883 




i 






• 



I aJ^•^.ev^wOl) Coovvta COLOMBIA. 



119 



No. 125.1 



COLOMBIA. X "T^ ^'^ 

Xo. G7. ^ ' 

.¥r. ,%/•(((;//« to Mr. FreUmjhuysen. 

Legation op the United Statfs 
Sir- ,,/''^f;V'"'"'"^'^'-3"' 1««-'^- (Koc.ive.1 Jannan 3?"lS84.) 

locks or ]liu.lrauX.K'?k , r wi « n "".T^'lf '' ""''™^' " ^"^l^^"* 
called merely to ri fVwLf t L. -^/"l since tbe " congress " had been 

associates hil alreaft ag S.l r„' ^^^iS-f ""li'"*^;; '^"{^ ^l^^- 
anml nn.ch confnsioi.; b/a voteT72 .gainiJo" ""' ''"""^ "'^«P*^'*' 
sei tiouTofT/TJ' ^'^''''f' ?,"'^""'' ^^'-^ ««"«''«'t and oft-repeated as- 

for the reception of tL'vaterS^.i' r^^^^ '"" '"'^V" ^ I"^^^"*'^ ^''•"^•^ 
range all the way Lm 4^ to 7^^^^^^ '''"*' o^l'«r ^vers, which 

I liaye, &c., 

WILLIAM L. SCUUGGS. 



ili><-l„.,i„c in Xo. I23.-Fr,„n ,h.. I.omU,,, .Sfatulnrd. O.nober 9. 1883.] 

TIIK PANA>rA (ANAL. 

[From onr cnrri'sjxinilent.] 
AI niiii.-lpr tl,u .^.1,; r ■ ... I'Altls. MoiidaiJ iiiiiht. 

....t Ji^'fv- v,:.i''s,j!;:?;r;(^;;u:;^ .; :;n::^^^:?A,';:;;i^ '■"";':^->- '- j-^ ^'^" ^^ ™- 

eivafion „f UMM,.,,i,T,Mj^at..r-w,v , T, 's t , ' '""'"''.t, ;i""-"^"l« '■nno.-rniiijr the 













THE 



TEIIUANTEPEC SHIP RAILWAY, 



B Y 



E. Iv. CORTHELI., C.E. 



[A-N ADDUKSS DKUVJCRED UKFORE TUB FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, DBCEMBBE 28, 1884.] 



^u J J '1 ^rr*- 









"MERKuitw PiiiKj"(J.SrESt,-EB Smitih, oOl Phestnct St., PratA. 






- « "~ c' ~. ?r ="''5 '' ' £ : 



? = 5 -. - - i' 2. i; 5 ; = - ^' 



: ct S c K c ^ ft > . ' ": = ' c — /- ' . a ^ (t c "-. . :/. --l ^ -a r^ 






1 



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G 


(Jreat Britain, 
commercial in 
frei;rlit char 
especially of 
car,irocs, must 
cned. India 
no*- lie ureatl; 
new route of 
it may be d 
our t 'liiuese tr 
ciiur.se. For 
of mails am 
Cbiua aiul .la) 
Pacific liaihvi 
be more expi-i 
transit of ste;» 
\\\v. Isthmus 1 
Peninsular an 
to India am 
however, shot 
aijainst every 
ceedin.ifin a w 
It would, tl 
a sliort-sifjht 
own interests 
show a capti 
unworthy ten 
men refused 
rest of the c 
least with the 
a frank reeoij 
traordinary n 
of M. Fer'diii 
tli(^ sueeessfi 


will be of much 

iportance, as the 
tres and risks, 
wool and wheat 
thereby lie less- 
will Jirobably 
V affected by tlie 
navii;ation : and 
oulited whether 
.aile will alter its 
the conveyance 
1 )iassen!<ers to 
lau. the Canadian 
ly must certainly 
litious than any 
ui-ships throutfh 
if Panama. The 
il Oriental route 
1 Eastern A.sia, 
lid hold its own 
competitor pro- 
esterndirection. 
lercfore, be with 
R(l view of our 
<. and it would 
ous, pei'vish. and 
iper. if Eu!,'lish- 
to join with the 
livili.sed world, at 
rest of Europe, in 
nition of the ex- 
leritsand services 
and De Eesseps. 
il projector and 





en 



— i 
o 



-To 






^;a.-v-v«ji. 



52d Congress, 
M Session. 



HOUSE OF KEPUESENTATIVES. 



( Eeport 
\ Xo. 2615. 



X TC 777 

INVESTKJATION OF PANAMA CAXAL.' % i^Kj 



March 3, 1893. — Laid on the table and orderod to be printed. 



Mr. Fellows, tiom tlie Special Committee to luvestigiite the Panama 
Canal Company, etc., submitted the following 

REPORT: 

The Committee on Rules, to whom were referred the resolutions 
heretofore introduced by Mr, Fellows and Mr. Geary, respectively, 
reported the same back with the recommendation that the resolution 
herewith submitted be adopted in lieu thereof, viz: 

Resolnd. That a special couiniittee of five be appointed by tin; Spealier to investi- 
gate and report us to what sums of money, if any, were expended by the Panama 
Canal Company, or its promoters, direttly or intlirectly, for the pnrjiose of prevent- 
ing opposition in this conntry to the plans of said company, or securing acq nieseeice 
in America thereto, and what disposition was made of such sums; and generally as 
to the situation of affairs upon the Isthums so far as American commerce seeking 
transit across the same may be concerned; and also as to the contracts and relations 
between the I'acitic Mail Steamship Company and the Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company, the Transcontinental Railroad Association, and other railroads; and as to 
what contracts or other (-ollnsive arrangements have been made by said companies 
whereby the traffic by way of the Isthmus of Panama has been suppressed or dimin- 
ished ; and as to whether said steamship company, by Virtue of said contracts or other- 
wise, has been practically Jibsorbed by or subjected to the control of said railro.-id 
companies; and as to whether the business which it w.is the design of this Government 
to foster by the sums granted to said steamship company, tlirougli mall contracts or 
otherwise, has been thereby diverted from the Isthmus of Panama and the Panama 
Railroad Company to such transcoutinentfil companies; and as to whether such acts 
arc detrimental to the interests of American maritime conuuerce and the producers, 
manufacturers, and merchants of the United State*; ami if such abuses are fonnd to 
exist, by what means the same can or should lie suppressed, and as to whether the 
further grant of said suras to said steamship company should be withdrawn. Said 
ciirauiittee shall have the ])ower to send for jiersfuis and papers and administer oaths, 
and the expenses incurred in said investigation shall be paid out of the contingent 
fund of the House, and said committee shall have leave to sit during the sessions of 
the House in Washington or elsewhere. 

Your committee, to which was referred the fotegoing resolution, finds 
itself confronted with the fact that this session will close within a few 
days and that some report is demimded during the very last week of 
an expiring Congress. 

The matters refened to in the resolution are so varied and distinct 
iu their nature that while the committee finds itself able authorita- 
tively to report on certain of the .subjects contained in it, feeling confi- 
dent that the true facts have ])ccn thoroughly disclosed, ;is to other 
matters referre! your committee iloes not feel that same confidence, 
and should the House desire further investigation of some of the sub- 
jects embraced ifi this resolution your committee does not feel ju.stifted 
in saying that no gnmnd for such action exists. Your committee has 
not felt it.self compelled to go through the great mass of diplomatic 
> papers and cx)rrespondence which has accumulated during the pres- 



^ 



r 






X-TC 777 



SeTentj-Blitlitb Year. Tros Tyriusque mibl nulla dlsoriuiine sgetor. 



Vol. 156 i M 



'« 



THE 



NORTH AMEEICAN 
REVIEW. 

K«-«itabUshed by AIiI.EM TBOBITDIKE SICB. 



« 



139 



EDITED BT LLOYD BRYCE. 

February, 1893. 

HOW TO REVISE THE TARIFF. 
By the Hon. WILLIAM M. 8PBIN0EB, 

Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, 
Recollections of the Panama Canal Congress, 

'^^^-""n^mmmmnaaiw^', Rkar-Admiral Ammen, U. S. N. 136 
Changes in the Church of England . . The Dean of St. Paul's 149 
Criminal Law in France Madamk Adam 160 

BOONS AND BANES OF FREE COINAGE. 

I. <• IN THX INTEBEST OS SHTI.O0K," 

By the Hon. B. P. Blandi 171 
Chairman of the Comm,ittee on Coinage, Etc. 
II. A WABNINa TO SAVIKaS BANK DEF0SIT0B8, 

By John Harsen Shoades, ijj 
President of the Oreenwich Savings Bank, N. Y. 
m. A SBPOSITOB'S POINT OF VTEW, 

By aDettoaitorinaSaTin^Bank. 181 
Wild Stag Hunting in Devon and Somerset, 

The Countess of Malmesbury 186 
Government Aid to the Nicaragua Canal, 

•■"■"'■•••'"i^*™""^"'""^!^^ Senator John T. Morgan 195 
Shall Our Laws Be Codified ? . . . . Frederic R. Coudert 204 
Needed Reforms in the Army . . Gen. John GibboK, U. S. A, 212 
Why Immigration Should Not Be Suspended, 

Senator H. C. Hansbrough 220 

The Hope of a Home Erastus Wiman 228 

EUROPE AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 
I. THE BBITISH SEOTION . . By Sir Henry Tmemaa Wood, 
Secretary to the British Com.mission, 

II. THE FBENCH SECTION By Theodore Stanton, 241 

Commissioner Resident in Paris, 
NOTES AND COMMENTS. 
Mistakes — but Not of Moses .... Charles W. Trickett 247 
Science and the Woman's Question . Lvdia Lvovna Pimenoff 248 
From Renan's Point of View .... Arthur Reed Kimball 251 
The American Common Schools .... Rev, James M. King 254 



237 



No. 



NEW YORK : 
3 EAST FOURTEENTH STREET. 



LONDON : Bbeictano's, 6 Agti Street, Strand. BEKLIH : A. Asiiii Jk Co. 

PARIS : Bbentano's, IT ATenue de I'Opura. OENKVA : J. Cuekbuliiz. BOMK : Loesouib A> Co. 

MELBOUUNE, SVDNET, and ADELAIDE: George Kobbbtbon * Oo. 

YOKOHAMA AKD SHANGHAI : Kbllt ic Walsh. 



Slnffle Nnmbera. SOc. 



Pnblisbed Monthly. 




Per Annnni, S3. 




\ 



5CXH Congress, I 
Ist Session- * 



/WO' 



V\ 



DoCtnMENT 





r „ p^AMA CA.AI. COMPAQ* 0I1«A''* 



MESSAGE 



' FROM THB 

;,SIM»T 0. THE Wn™ STAW3, 

— .xiaMITTlNQ. 



tv\ 



! 



^TO^ OF THE SENATE O^ JANTJAJY^ 

"W famish *« 8''°'''*;i. nf »U correspondence »"* """^jg^ Panama 

Canal Co.npany <>« J^'^^^'g^ith the papers called tor. 
'"Se^MrSmitS 



26 



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Z^ 30 31 3i J3 34 35 3* 37 



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3« 3<J 40 ^1 42 43 ^^ ^^ ^^ 



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43 



45 46 



PLAN OF THE MEW PANAMA CAINAL 

P/an No. 2 {E/e\^at/on20. 75) with four Locks on edch side of the 
divide IS the one wtiich has been approved by the internationat 
Technics/ Commission but it is possib/e that m course of con- 
struction the number of Loct^s may be reduced to rtro on each 
side as in Plan No. 3 There is nothing in rhe Physicat Candi lions 
toprevenr a change from Locks to a Sea -Le^e/ Canal shoo id the 
latter, in the future, seem desirable. 



*z 






■ ~wr«" '" 



1 OLrAOjvw/Ol Cexr»\»j(' 



fv\ij. T 



56th Congress, i 



SENATE. 



Jst iSesnonJt 



I 



Document- 
No. 389. - 



SHIP CANALS IN THE ISTKMUS OF DARIEN. 



1 



'y - 

I ::.■■■ 
If" • 



l^.^ 






May 21, 1900.— Ordered to be printed. 



Mr. Morgan presented the following ^ ^ 

8UPPI.EMENTABY BEPOBT FBOM ^^ °°^f,V^^^^ °^ JJ^.^Jq 
OPFANIC CANALS, TO ACCOMPANY THE BILL (H. B. 2538) TO 

Sbov?de fob th^! constbuction of a canal connecting 

™ wTtEBS of the ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS," ANTJ 
ISo CEBTlllEr^ COPIES OF THBEE ACTS OF THE LEGISLA- 
TUBE qF NEW JEBSEY. 

The (Jommittee on Interoceanic Canals report the following-cer- 
tified copSs of charters of corporations of New Jersey relating to 
ship caX in the Isthmus of Darieo, and request that the same be 
printed as a document for the use of the benate : 

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF PANAMA CANAL COMPANY OF 

AMERICA. 

» 

United States of America, State of N,m Jersey : 

We, the undersigned, hereby do associate ourselves into a corpora- ■ 
tion under and by virtue of the provisions of an act ot the legislature 
ofJhe State of New Jersey, entitled "An act coiic^erning corporations 
Session of 1896)," and the several acts amendatory thereof and sup- 
plemental thereto, for the purposes hereinafter named, and do make 
this our certificate of incorporation. n^nmnnv of 

First. The name of the coi-poration is Panama Canal Company ot 

"^Secoild. The location of the principal office of the corooration in the 
State of New Jersev is at 76 Montgomery street, in Jersey City, in 
the countv of Hudson, and the name of the agent therein and in charge 
thereof upon whom process against this eorpoi;at.on may be sened, 

'** lliird!"The"objecte for which the corporation is formed are as 

*°Torcquire, by purchase or otherwise, the maritime ship canal of the 
Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panaina and the milway .^^••"Of^ th« 
Isthmuf of Panama between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacihc OcM^an, 
to construct, exploit, complete, equip, repair, and enlarge; to operate, 
iLnalge, nmin Jn, and control'saik canal and railway and the various 



% 



.:_— u../ 






X-lC 777 
• 5 lI'ZO 



rv-jfl . 3 C 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIVIL ENGINEERS. 



THE BOHIO DAM. 



BY 



George S. Morison, Past-President, Am. Soc. C. E. 



WITH DISCUSSION BY 

Messrs. FREDERIC P. STEARNS, ALLEN HAZEN, EDWARD P. 

NORTH, BOYD EHLE, THEODORE PASCHKE, WILLIAM 

H. BURR, A. G. MENOCAL, H. N. PHARR, EDWIN 

DURYEA, Jr., C. A. SUNDSTROM, EDWARD 

WEGMANN, PHILIP? FORCHHEIMER, 

J. L. CAMPBELL, J. T. FORD and 

GEORGE S. MORISON. . ^. 



Reprinted from 7Van«ie(u>n<, Vol zItUI, page 285 (1902). 






f, 



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/^ RKCKIVBO ^^ 

NOV -2 1904 



■■^n w i. i y 



57to Congress, ) SENATE. "^-^jlW* 

i»^ SessKm. f --— ^— 



I No. 774. 



I 



X TC 77/ ^ 

PROPOSED CANAL ACROSS THE ISTHMt7S5lT SAN ' 

BLAS, ETC. 



March 17, I902.-Ordered to be printed. 



n 



Mr. Hakhis, from the Committee on Interoceanic Canals, submitted 

tne following 

REPOET. 

[To accompany 8. R. 45 ] 

"BBPOBT OP 8UBCOMMIITEE TO TOLL COMMITTEE. 

' It is evident to your comniittee that nil ^^f t-ui 
Panama and the niainlandTrvered bv thl n t^^^.^'^gion between 
the Panama Canal (Wr,«nv ''"^'^''''^ ''^ ^^^ concession now held by 

must be b7and with th" cZ;nt^rf he T' rP''**''^"'^ '" '^'' '^siol 
Thfl,.^ 1 • • r "^*" *'^*' assertions made with I'pp-arH fr> if 



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XrTC 777 



'^he Panama Canal 

as involving the 

Regulation of the Chagres 
River 



i^^ 



Br 

GEN. HENRY L. ABBOT 

Colonel Corps at Kti^inoera. Retired, 

and Member of 

TKe International Technical Commisaion 




:5 



Reprinted from 
THE ENGINEER.ING MAGAZINE 

Ne-w YorR London 

December, 1903 

COPYRIGHT, 1»0», Br JOMM R. OtiNUAP 



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ENGliElR 



Vol. XXV. 



THE PATJAMA CANAL : THE DUAL VERSUS THE 
SINGLE-LAKE PROJECT. 

i^y Gen. Henry L. Abbot. WUh reply by George S. Morison. . 

international rep„tation, but the '-<!'"« ^^7^;;" °J ^ei more extended discussion of the 

by the Isthmian Canal ^°^^!"'''7"'° ,..„„ ^ut also by abandon- 
only in the mode of construction of the ^ohK. dam^^^^^^ V ^^^ 

in/about six miles of canal ^^^ ^^^^TZTAlg^^r^^ level of 
adopting a new location, much of it raised above t g ^ 

the country, and involymg f;--°5':f;^j'^t would seem there- 
river as well as an additional ^ff^^^^^o be considered, which 
fore that there are three Pl^fj^^^^Xnal Commission of Engi- 
in order of date are: that of the I^t^-^"^*;"""' ^^ j^^^^^^^ Canal 

neers, known ^^^^^^J^^' ?! Idamental difference 
Commission, and tha -^ ^n Moriso ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Sl^r = :^ria.e.L. .em .eajed by a dam 

Copyright, .903, by John R- Dunlap. 

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COMPAGNIE NOUVELLE 



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CANAL DE PANAMA 



S0CI]6Tft ANONYME 

Au capital de 65 millions de francs 



SIEGE SOCIAL : 7, Rue Louis-le-Grand, PARIS 



Assemblee Generale Extraordinaire 

du 23 Avril 1904 



RAPPORT DU CONSEIL D'ADMINISTRATION 



PARIS 

SOCIETE ANONYME DE PUBLICATIONS PfiRIODIQUES 

13, QUAI VOLTAIRE, 13 

1904 



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rJc-T.^k^^,j, .., J.S. , ^.0 



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DISPOSITION OF RAINFALL IN THE BASIN OF THE CHAGEES. 



By 



GEN. H. L. ABBOT, XT. S. A., (Retthed. 



Beprintod from the Monthly Wonthor Bovic^w lor Ffliniar>-, 1004. 



,Y 



or, 



TC 777 



/ 



^ 



/ ^ 



HOURLY CLIMATIC RECORDS ON THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA. 



By 



GEN. H. L. ABBOT, V. S. A. (Eetibed.) 



Keprinted from the Monthly Weatlier Keview for June, 1904. 






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Vol. XL. APRIL, 1904. No. 4 

^ —^ X- iC 777 

AMEEIOAN SOCIETY OF OIYIL ENGOTEEBS. 

INSTITUTED 1S68. T 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS. 

This Society is not responsible, as a body, for the facU and opinions adranead 
In any of its publications. 



THE GATUN DAM. 



Br C. D. Wabd, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Pbesented May 18th, 1904. 



In a paper,* entitled "Inter-Oceanic Canal Projects," by A. G. 

• Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., 1879, Vol. VXII, p. 811. 

Menocal, M. Am. Soc. C. E., it is stated that the Oovernment Cum- 
mission, appointed in 1875, reported, as to a canal with locks, from 
Colon to Panama, as follows: 

" The river (Chagres) is proposed to be crossed by means of an 
aqueduct having twelve spans of 90 ft. each, 1 900 ft. extreme leD^th, 
65 ft. wide and 26 ft. deep." 

In discussing this paper,! the late Ashbel Welch, Past-President, 

t Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., 1880, VoL IX, p. 148. 

Am. Soc. C. E., a thorough and noted canal engineer in his day, 
said : 

"The first thought of an American canal and river engineer, on 
looking at M. de Lesseps' raised map, is to convert the valley of the 
lower Chagres into an artificial lake, some 20 miles long, by a dam 
across the valley at or near the point where the proposed canal strikes 
it a few miles from Colon, such as was advocated by Mr. C. D. Ward." 

The site proposed for this dam was at Gatun, 7.5 miles from deep 
water at Colon, the end of the canal. But, as is well known, the use 
of locks was not to be thought of under M. de Lesseps domination, 
and a sea-level canal was commenced in 1883. 



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^0-?S>f; PANVV.^^A CANAL. 



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PUESIDI^NT OF Till': UNITED STATES, 



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TTTF COBBESPONrtENCE BEI.ATING TO THE PANAMA CANAL 
cir.LED Job BY THE BESOLUTION OF THE SENATE OF JANU- 
ABY 29, 1904, IN LEGISLATIVE SESSION. 



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^- TC 777 
• 5 

MESSAGE ^ 



FROM THE 



President of the United States 



TRANSMITTING 



STRUCTION OK A (-A^rr? ™^ ^°'^ THE CON- 

waterTof the"tm jrf^S™'^ WE 

OCEAX,S,.. ..P^P.^o'^rj?.rf3,^T^ 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1904. 



43/ 



^X. 



REGIMEN OF THE CHAGRES 



GENERAL HENRY L. ABBOT 







^i*vPilIV 



! 



Co/Ofui Corps of Engineers, Retired. Late Member, International 
Technical Commission 



Reprinted from Harvard Engineering Journal, June, 1904 



# 






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X-TC 777| 

The Solution^ 

of tKe 

Isthmian Canal Problem 



Bx Gen. Henry I,. Abbot 



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T 




IVeprintecl from 

fax. CNGINECR.ING MAGAZINE 

JANUARY. 1904' 



72^0 






The Revi-^aJ^ ^''^ 

of the • 5 ^tS^) 

Sea-Level Plan 

for the 

Panama Canal 

By Gen. Henry L. Ahhot 

Colonel, Corps of Engineers, and Brigadier General, U. S. A., 
Retired. Late Member Intcnnitional Technical Commission. 




Reprinted from 

THC KNGINCKR.ING MAGAZIMC 

rKBRVARY. 1905 



1-Tsc- .~-.™. .„.. 






X-TC 777 



:e>^nj^jsij^ ca.:^jU^^ 



,: 5 4sH 



SPEECH 



OF 



HON. ALBERT J. HOPKINS, 



OF ILLINOIS, 



IN THE 



SENATE OF THE UiYITED STATES, 



Fi'Itlay, June 8, i ooo. 



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1906. 



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I (Xrvx/xrvwcxi CO/woJI . 



ss, I SENATE. 

i«< Session. 



59th Congress, | SENATE. .• j Document 

'^ ' I 1 No. 456. 



X TC 777 

TYPE OF CANAL TO BE CONSTRICTED AT PANAMA". 



Mr. Morgan presented the following • ..; 

LETTEK FROM MB. C. HENKY HUNTER, CHIEF ENGINEEB 
MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL, OF MANCHESTER, ENGLAND, 
ADDRESSED TO HON. A. B. KITTREDGE, RELATING TO THE TYPE 
OF CANAL TO BE CONSTRUCTED AT PANAMA. 



May 24, 1906.— Referred to the Committee on Jnteroceanic Canals and ordered to be 

printed. 



i" ~ . ' Oakhurst, Eccles OtD Road, 

f; ■. '-^r ' ' ■■ Manchester, April ^8, 1906. 

Sir: I have the honor to refer further to your letter of the 11th 
, . . ihstant and to reply thereto a.s follows: 

t . As a member of the Board of Consulting Engineers I took part in 

{ the exhaustive investigation into the merits and demerits of the various 

. , t^vpes of canal proposed for the interoieanic waterway on the Panama 

■ :' , line, and con.sequently became convinced that it was my duty to support 

;| the propo-sal for the construction of a canal at sea level and to sub- 

l scribe to the recommendation to the Tnited States Government and 

if. to Congress as to the adoption of the sea-level type of canal. 

i. , A careful study of the report presented by a minority of the mem- '. 

I hers of the board has confirmed me iii.tJKa^iii yp n which I formed. 

t. ^ After considerable experience, not only in the con.straeti«t but also 

in the operation of maritime waterways,' it appears to me to be clear 
that the paramount consideration in the discussion as to. the type of the 
Panama Canal should be the provision of a waterwav w'^ich will, so 
far as human effort can secure such a result, be absolutely safe as a 
navigation, and therefore shall not present any peculiar hazards U. the lytfi 
f traffic, and shall not include any inherent features which may make 

(: for disaster to vessels in transit and for the destruction of the works 

Ij when completed. 

i^ I venture respectfully to hope that the Senators who are engaged in 

the present inquiry will agree with this proposition. 

Safety of navigation requires (1) that the canal shall be free from 
obstniction, and (2) that it shall not be dependent for its existence 
* upon the maintenance and preservation of works of art of an experi- 

;' mental character. 

It is impossible to deny that the emploj-ment of locks of great size, 
and particularly of lifts of height beyond all precedent in engineering 



.- . ^ . - .- -*v.,*firtrf? 



-**»_" 



T ai-^-^iOJ■v>^^<0 CXXrv^o^. 



' 1 No. 456. 



X-TC 777=^3^ 



TYPE OF CANAL TO BE CONSTRLXTED AT "Pj&AMA. 



Mr. Morgan presented the following 

LETTER FKOM MB. C. HENBY HTTNTEB, CHIEF ENGINEEB 
"^^^^^^""^^ ^^^^ ''^^^^' °^ MANCHESTEB SglTnd 

OF CAVA? Tn^.?^''- ^- ^- ^ITT^^^^E. HELATING TO THE™E 
OF CANAL TO BE CONSTBXJCTED AT PANAMA. 



May 24, 1906. -Referred to the Committee on Interoceanic Canals and ordered to be 

printed. 



Oakhtjrst, Eccles Old Road, 

^ , , , , Manchester, April 28, 1906. 

^ir: 1 have the honor to refer farther to vour letter of the 11th 
instant and to reply thereto as follows- 

As a member of the Board of Consulting Engineers I took part in 
he exhaustive investigation into the meritsind (femerits of the variois 
pes of canal proposed for the intero.eanic waterway on the PanTma 
me, and consequently became convinced that it was mv duty to supTr? 
the proposal for the construction of a canal at sea leveland to^?ub 
scribe to the recornmendation to the United States Goven ment and 
to Congress as to the adoption of the sea-level type of canal 
\..t Tl .'^"'^Ju* *'"" 'TPO'-t Pi-osented by a minority of the mem- 
Af^eV. ''?^'^}^^ confirmed me in the opinion which ] formed 
After considerable experience, not only in the construction but also 
n tiie operation of maritime waterways, it appears to me to be cfea? 
that the paramoiint consideration in the discus^on as to the type of the 
Panama Canal .^ould be the provision of a waterway wh cf will so 
far as human effort can secure such a result, be absolutely safe as a 
Sf and' I'^ll'^'f '"'"l 1*^" ""t.P'<^-nt any peculiar hazarc^ to the 
for di wit """ '""l"*^^ ?"-^' 'V*^^''^"^ ^^''t^'-^s ^J^ich may make 
tLn completer' ' '" ''""''' '"^ '"'" '^'^ ^"'•■'truction of the'works 
I venture respectfully to hope that the Senators who are eno-aged in 
the present inquiry will agree with this proposition. "^ 

okS Y- '"''I'^TT i-^iuii-e^-* (1) that the canal shall be free from 
obstruction, and (2) that it shall not be dependent for its exfsten^e 

It is impossible to deny that the employment of locks of great si^e 
and particularly of lifts of height beyoiul all precedent in en^gTneeri^g 



...-.v,._.'Jaiai. A;:jfr,fv <_ ^^ 




Journal of thi Socibty of Arts, Janiar 



.»» ,* 



No. 2827. VOL. LV. JAN. 25, 1907. 





isociEjyi 

liOFARTSi 



• •aMBV* 






C0NTENT51 



NOTICES 331 

PROCEEDINGS OP THE SOCIETY .. »3» 

Cantor Lectures.— Mr. A. D. Hall, M.A., 
"ArtiBcial Fertilisers: their Nature and 
^ Function." (Lecture V.) 
Ordinary Meeting. — M. Philippe Bunau- 
Varilla, "The Panama Canal— The 'Lock- 
Canal • Type and the ' Straits of Panama ' 
Type." ■ ■,...»., 'Hi*""* 

JENERAL ARTICLES 276 

HOME INDUSTRIES a?? 

CORRESPONDENCE "78 

OBITUARY »79 

GENERAL NOTES a79 

MEETINGS *79 






'mif 



For detailed Table of Contents see Page u. 



f nun n>J PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIEiy BY GEORGE' 
LynUUn BeS. & ^QHS . yORKH0U3E.P0KrUGALST.wa ! 



KKi.i-T-.Khu AS a;;,Nhvspapkk 



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publication of 
The American Academy of Political . 



Present Status of the Panama Project 





BY 



BRIGADIER-GENERAL HENRY L, ABBOT. U. S. A., Retired 

L«. Member of the Comit^ Technique. «,™«time Conaul.ing Engineer of the Ne„ Panama 
Canal Company, and l.,e Member of the U. S. Board of c' h,ul4 Engineef. 



Reprinted from THE ANNALS of the American Academy of Political 
and Social Science for January, 1908 



PHILADELPHtA 
THK AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PQLITICAL AND SOCfAL SCIENCE 



rO/v\fl./vv\Ai OOLrv-uoJl , ^** J: 

«Oth Congress, \ CONFIDENTIAL. j Executive ' 

2d Session. \ 1 Nj 



TREATIES WITH PANAMA AND COLOMBIA RELATING TO 
THE PANAMA CANAL. 



MESSAGP] 

FROM THE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



TRANSMITTING 



TREATIES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE BEFITBLICS 
OF PANAMA AND COLOMBIA RELATING TO THE PANAMA 
CANAL, BOTH SIGNED ON JANTTABY 9, 1909. 



jANnARY 11, 1909. — Read; treaties read the first time and referred to the Committee 
on Foreign Relations, and, together with tiie message and accompanying papers, 
ordered to be printed in confidence for the use of the Senate. 



The President: 

I have the honor to .submit herewith, with a view to their transmis- 
sion to the Senate to receive the advice and consent of that body to 
ratification, a treaty between the United States and the Republic 
of Panama and a treaty between the United States and the Republic 
of Colombia, both signed on Januarj' y, 1909. 

I tran.sniit also, for your information and that of the Senate, a copy 
of treat}' between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of 
Panama, concluded at the same time, the three treaties being in effect 
parts of the same transaction whereby peace is established between 
Panama and Colombia, the separation of the two Republics is ajfreed 
to, and the relations incident to the separation are adjusted. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Elihu Root. 

Department of State, 

Washingtov, January 11, 1909. 



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'> 1 

1 IBaiBE OS TUB UTEB-OCEM PIJAM CMH . | 

(RETROSPECT) 

I Hislorieal, Politieal, Geographieal, Commereial and | 
Teehnieal Essay. 

i 



Comparison between the French and American 
^ control of the canal work. 

£ fl 

ffi Written and compiled by ADOLPflUS E. VERDEREAU ESQ l 
I Respectfully dedicated to the American People. % 

I ^ 

I I 

I Ptibltshed under the immediate patronage of Sr. LADISLAO I 
I SOSA, Ex-Secretary of Public Works of the 

^ Republic of Panama. ■jA 

i I 

( VIRES ACQUIRIT EUNDO.) 
Copyright and translation reterved by the author. 



I Printed at ISTHMIAN Printing Office. In Panama. 

-IQOQ- 



PRICE : 50 Centa U. S. Cy. 




■=T-*— ■■^TO- ■ 






<vvO. 21 



SUBJECT TO BEVISIOS. 



X-TC 777 



[TKANSACTIOSS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING ENGINEERS.] 



I 



I ••.■ 



i ^ 



A Sea-Level Canal at Panama — A Study of Its 
Desirability and Feasibility. 

BY HENRY G. GRANGER, CARTAGENA, COLOMBIA, S. A. 
(New Haven Meeting. February, 1909.) 

Nothing in this paper is to be understood as even suggesting 
a moment's suspension of the splendid work now going forward 
on the Isthmus of Panama, except so far as it is related to the 
proposed locks. All the work already done, and all material 
purchased or ordered, would be available for the plan herein 
proposed. The situation and the problem concerned may be 
summarized as follows : The scheme of a lock-canal through 
the Isthmus of Panama was adopted, as is well knovpn, on two 
principal grounds — namely, the greater expense of a sea-level 
canal, and the longer time required for its construction. Of 
these, the latter is believed to have been the more influential. 
But further developments have diminished the weight of both, 
so that a reconsideration of the question is warranted. It is 
the purpose of this paper to advocate such a reconsideration — 
emphasizing the importance of certain objections to the lock- 
canal not mentioned or not duly appreciated in the report of 
those members of the International Board of Consulting Engi- 
neers who favored this form ; showing the nature and bearing 
of the new facts developed ; and, finally, proposing a combina- 
tion of well-known methods and apparatus, which would, in 
my judgment, eft'ect the construction of a sea-level canal in less 
time, and perhaps at no greater cost, than will be required for 
the remaining work on the lock-canal. 

I. Objections to a Lock-Canal. 
1. Earthquakes. 
Two centuries ago Panama is said to have been destroyed by 
an earthquake. In 1882 a rather violent earthquake was felt 
at the southern end of the Isthmus. In 1898 I felt a slight 
shock near the present border-line of Colombia. In 1900 I 
felt three shocks at Quibdo, the head of navigation of the 

11] 






6l8T Congress, I HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. J Document 



Ist Session. 



\ 



No. 10. 



BEST TYPE OF CANAL FOR PANM; 



X TC 777 



March 26, 1909.— Ordered panted, with illustration*. 



1 



(i 



[Editorial to Engineering News, February 25, 1909.] 

THE KEA80NS WHY THE LOCK PLAN FOR THE PANAMA CANAL 18 PREF- 
ERABLE TO THE SEA-LEVEL PLAN. 

Three years ago, after long and careful investigation, the United 
States Government decided upon the lock plan of construction for the 
Panama Canal. This decision was made in conformity with the 
weight of the best engineering opinion. 

We say this advisedly and with all due respect to the engineers on 
the International Board who, at that time, from such knowledge aa 
was then available, favored the sea-level plan. Secretary Taft and 
President Roosevelt, in making the final momentous decision in favor 
of the lock-canal plan, accepted the opinion of such leaders of the 
engineering profession as Alfred Noble and Gen. Henry L. Abbot, who 
had given more thorough study to the Isthmian Canal problem than 
any engineers in this countrv or elsewhere; of Mr. F. P. Sterns, whose 
emmence in the field of hydraulic engineering is well known to every 
member of the profession; of Mr. Joseph M. Ripley, with his long expe- 
rience at the Soo Canal and its great lock, by far the greatest canal in 
point of traffic and by far the greatest lock in size, to be found m the 
world; of Mr. Isham Randolph, the engineering creator of the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, which ranks with the greatest canals on the globe. 

Besides these engineers, the lock-canal plan was supported at that 
time by the engineers of the Isthmian C^anal Commission, Gen. Peter 
C. Hains, Col. O. H. Ernst, and B. M. Harrod, past-president of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. It also received the emphatic 
indorsement of Mr. John F. Stevens, then chief engineer of the canal 
work, and familiar, from close personal contact, with the problems 
involved in the question as to the relative merits of the two types. 

We repeat, therefore, that Secretary Taft and President Roosevelt, 
in making the final momentous decision in favor of the lock canal 
plan three years ago, acted according to the best advice of the Ameri- 
can engineering profession. . 

From that time to the present, we believe, the canal enterpnse and 
the plan on which it is being carried out has deserved and has, we 
believe, received tlae general support and approval of American 
engineer. . . i i i 

It is now nearly three years since the decision m favor of the lock 
plan was made, and those three years have witnessed progress in 
construction exceeding the most sanguine expectations then enter- 
tained. The engineers on the Isthmus, in personal contact with the 



'■^ ■■- 






sihmian Canal Commission. 
PANAMA CANAL EXCAVATION 



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French excavation usable in present plan 40.000,000 

Estimated amount of excavation required May I. '04 . 174:666.595 

Total amount ofexcavation to complete Canal . . . 2I4..666.S95 
Amount taken out by French prior to May 1,04 40.000,000. 
Amount taken out by Americans to May I '09 , 73, 1248 49 

Total excavation to May I, i909 , '. n3,l€4849 

Remaining excavation to be done IOI,54f,746 






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X-TC 777 
• 5 



FORTIFICATION;^ AT 
PANAMA 



X 

i 

-41 



BY 
GEORGE W. DAVIS 



REPRINTED FROM 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAV 

OCTOBER, J909 






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THE TEXT OF A I.ECTURE BEFORE THE 
COMMERCIAI, CI.UB OF BOSTON, 



t 
t 

I 

j PHII^IPPE BUNAU-VARII^I^A, 

j 

, OK THK 

PANAMA CANAI,. 



(asth of Febniaty, 1909). 



Heprinted from Congresalonal Record, Sixtieth Congresa, Second Seaalon, 
Senate, Tneaday, March a, 1909. 



The Text of this lectnre was Introdnced by Mr. Foraker, Senator from Ohio, 

dtirlng a speech of Mr. Teller, Senator from Colorado, on the 

Panama Canal. Mr. Foraker moved that It should 

be printed In the Record and also 

printed as a Senate document. 

The Senate so ordered. 

(see over.) 

The text of the lectnre before the Commercial Club of Boston Is followed 
by a supplement bearing on some Important points which were to form part 
of the lecture, but which had to be omitted for lack of time. Also, a third 
chapter has been appended. It is formed by extracts from testimonies given 
at Ancon, Canal Zone, before the Congressional Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce, In which facta of the highest Importance are set forth. 
They form, so to say, a corroborative evidence of the statements made in the 
lectnre. 



i 



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?C-TC 777 
' 5 =JtHO) 



SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT 



OF 



MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE W. DAVIS, U. S. A. (Retired), 

GOVERNOR OF THE CANAL ZONE. 



TELKGRAPHS. 



The public, wishing to send messages by telegraph across the 
Isthmus, or from or to intoi'inediate points, have the means of doing 
so by using the Panama Railroad telegraph, and paying the customary 
tolls for the service: Ijut the rates charged by the railroad company 
are far and way beyond what should be charged. The rate from 
Panama to Colon, and vice versa, and from Ancon to Cristobal and 
vice versa, is $1 for 10 words, address and signature being both 
counted, whereas in the United States 10 words would be sent over a 
distance of 2o0 miles for 2.5 cents, without counting address or signature. 
When the work is being carried on rapidly, as it must be, to insure 
the completion of the canal in the time set for its completion, the tele- 
graph and telejjhone service on the Isthmus must be very active, and as 
no private line now exists, and, in the opinion of the und'ersigned, none 
ought to exist within the Zone, the raih-oad across the Isthnms ought 
to be treated just as the Panama Railroad is recommended to be treated; 
that is. as a Government line, incidentally performing some service 
for the public, which the public should pay for at a fair rate. Not 
that the Covernment desires to handle thc"pri\ate business; it is sub- 
mitted that it would be much more i)referable to have nothing to do 
with it; but the establishment of a local telephone and telegraph line 
here would be objectionable in many ways, and- it therefore follows 
that if the public are to have use of" the telegraph or telephone, they 
must make use of the fJovernment line. 

The Isthmus is connected with the outside world by two systems of 
cable communication: one is the Central and South American Cable 
Company's wire, which comes dowr. from the United States via (ial- 
veston, to Mexico, Central America, and which is continued on in the 
Pacific Ocean to Valparaiso, and has a land line across the continent to 
Buenos Ayrcs. 

The other is the West India and Panama direct cable system, whose 
wires reach all the West Indies islands, and also Key West. Both of 
these companies are doing business on the Isthnuis. ' There is another 
outlet by way of Jamaica and Bermuda to Halifax, and so to the 
United States. 



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X-TC 777 

' 5 4fl 



SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT 



OF 



MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE W. DAVIS, U. S. A. (Retired), 

GOVERNOR OF THE CANAL ZONE. 



TELEGRAPHS. 



The public, wishing to .st>nd iiie.ssage.s by telegraph across the 
L-<thmu.s, or from or to intermediate points, have the n.eans of doW 

toll7t"or "tf J^'" ^ '"""1 ^rr'^ ''^'^'■^VK and paying the cn'tmZy 
tolls tor tie service; but the rates charged bv the railroad comoanv 
are tar and way beyond what should be charged. The rateCi 
Panama to Colon, and vice versa, and from Ancon to Cristobal an^ 
vice versa ,s U .tor 10 words, address and signature befng bo"h 
counted, whereas in the United States 10 words would be sent^oveVa 
distance of 2.0 miles tor 25 cents, without counting address or signalire 
A\ hen he work is being carried on rapidly, as it must be, to insure 
the comp etion ot the canal in the time set for its completio ,, the tele! 
graph and telephone service on the Isthmus must be verv acti;! and as 
no private line now exists, and, in the opinion of the undersigned noni 
ought to exist within the Zone, the railroad across the Ml m us ought 

haf ?s''^ . T '' '^' ^r r '^ ^"''.'r^ ^-^ .-ecommended to be treat! d 
that IS. as a Covernmeut line, incidentally performing some service 

lhJf\ Pp'"''"' '''"^'^ the public should pay for at a tlir rate Not 
mifl 'h ?-r'"'"Ml'''""'^^° ^'""^'« th« private business; it is s^b 
mitted that It wo.ild be much more preferable to have nothing to do 

ri . 1 '"t the estabhsliment of a local telephone and telegraph line 

thHt ;T7? be objectionable in many ways, and it therefofe t'oUows 

that If the public are to have use of the telegraph or telcDhone thev 

must make use of the Government line. leicpnone, tUey 

The Isthmus is connected with the outside world by two systems of 

S,mnaT^''u'!;''''h-\""'' '' ')' ^'"^''^^ and Soutl, AmeriJan C l^e 
Lompan3 s wire, which comes down from the Tnited States via Gal 

Pn! mcVf ^^T'^ P"*^''' ^'".^'Z"^' '^"^' ^^ hich is continS onin the 
Buenos Ayres ^ "'•'"'■"'■^*^' '"'^ ^^' ^ '^"^ line across the continent to 

The other is the West India and Panama direct cable system, whose 
wires reach all the \Vest Indies islands, and also Kev West Both of 
these companies are doing business on the Isthmus. ^ There is ano her 

Unked StaW """"'" ""^ ^"""'"^''^ *« "'^'^^■"^' ""^ so to the 



S*^^f.^._. 



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23 

• 5 




In 




HYDRAULICS OF THE CHAGRES RIVER. 

By Gen. Henry L. Abbot. 

The real problem of the Isthmian Canal is one of hydraulics — not, as very generally 
assumed* merely one of navigation or finance. General Abbot's exact and authoritative 
studies, published in The Engineering Magazine, were among the most important argu- 
ments leading originally to the selection of the right project. We are glad to be once more 
the medium of giving publicity to this paper, prepared at the instance of the National 
Academy of Sciences (April, 1910) answering affirmatively and emphatically the question, 
lately raised, as to the sufficiency of the water supply even with the huge locks provided 
by the present plans. — The Editors. 

IN projecting a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, the dominat- 
ing element is not the volume of excavation at the Continental 

divide, but rather the hydraulics of the Chagres River whose 
valley must be traversed throughout the greater part of the route. 
The failure to appreciate this fact largely contributed to the disaster 
of the first French Company, and it is through the elaborate investiga- 
tions of the New French Company, supplemented by those now in 
progress, that the problem has become perfectly understood. The 
climatic conditions are of primary importance in a study of the 
hydrology of the river, and they are so different from those of the 
United States that it is not without interest to contrast them. 

The average annual temperature is about 80 degrees F., differing 
only about 2j4 degrees in winter and summer. Ice and snow are un- 
known. The rainfall is much less irregular than with us, being largely 
governed by the motion of the sun in declination. The latitude of the 
Isthmus is about 9 degrees north, and as the sun moves north and 
south between the tropics it carries with it an ascending current oi 
moist air which, condensed by cold, forms a rain-belt varying in lati- 
tude from month to month. Its passage over the Isthmus forms two 
well-marked seasons; three comparatively dry months, February', 
March and .April, when the sun is far south ; two intermediate months, 
January and May; and seven very rainy months forming the rest of 
the year. The absence of frost and the comparatively normal rainfall 
in this region greatly assist hydraulic studies. 

It may naturally be asked what river in the United States, where 
the climatic conditions are so different, most nearly resembles the 

.177 



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erioN. 

S«sua In 

? 

% 

1108, who 
f Church 
;hapel In 
yesterday 
corporate 
earins on 
la In thr.ir 
le Chapel, 
on of the 
1 be held, 
'B Chapel 

■el " l» th(? 
: what, the 
of the case 
nd the is- 
14 with a 
h» opposi- 
l1. In part 

]ue«tlcm 1* 
r temporal 
1 the sight 
tnury force 
io* nearest 

uld all t)i« 
those who 
our church 
thay would 
4k you, as 
own Judg- 
e, unlnrlu- 
to vote at 
n as shall 

ir the com- 
luftd raaln- 

ige in the 

ical except 

on the list 

id Edmund 

election as 

n a*e to be 

as renomi- 

St. John's 

names as 

St. John's 

lem repre- 

sny, and 

)f services 

one hun- 
to march 
Ip to the 
I a body, 
unsel for 
win chal- 
he Chapel 
it. Luke's 
they are 

i. In dts- 

t: 

>hn's had 

lay It has 

de up of 

shionable 

)f Trinity 



.•hlch your 
f Tias not 

djscuuion 
rtlati who 
asura that 
en of thla 
resort, ar« 
ributorfl to 
all other 
I. Few of 
cally none 

and their 
^mputacton. 



Dangers of the LockjCanaLy^ 



Guaidv Lindenthal Wants a Revisic 
Plans Before It Is Too Le 



of Pi 



anama 



Some of the recently published articles 
on the Panama Canal deserve more than 
passing attention, because they contained 
fair and analytical discussion of certain 
features of the work, on wliich expert 
engineers have decided differences of 
opinion. 

It is most unfortunate that the largest 
engineering work In the history of man- 
kind should bo conducted on plans which 
from the beginning were thus in dispute. 
The vastness of the undertaking justifies 
the prerequisite that the plans for It 
shall be above question. That Is not the 
case when criticism apparently well 
founded and reasoned creates serious 
doubts of ultimate success. 

It is also most unfortunate that the 
canal officials should regard a discus- 
sion of the present plans of construction 
as an attack upon the policy of building 
any canal at all. This Is not a fair- 
minded attitude, and will probably not 
silence those honestly differing In their 
judgment with the canal authorities. 

It Is also most unfortunate that the 
question of type, whether sea level or 
lock type, which had been submitted to 
an International board of expert en- 
gineers, was not allowed to be settled in 
the same authoritative manner as ques- 
tions of law are settled In a court where 
a majority of Judges, after hearing ar- 
gument, decides and ends the contro- 
versy. 

The majority of eight engineers out of 
thirteen favored a sea level canal In a 
searching, conscientious, and well-is»- 
Boned opinion. 

The minority of five engineers recom- 
mended a lock canal In an alluringly 
argued report, which did not convince the 
majority. The two principal reasons al- 
leged In favor of the lock canal were 
cheapness and shorter time of construc- 
tion. The first reason, cheapness, Is now 
known to be illusory; the second reason, 
shorter time, no one cared anything 
about. Everybody was and is willing that 
all the time needed tor good work, ener- 
getically prosecuted, sliall be taken. 

To no other single cause can be ascribed 
so many failures of engineering struct- 
ures as to false notions of economy; 
whether It bo In the type or capacity of 
structure. In foundations, in' dimension- 
ing, or in location. The Panama Canal is 
an example on the largest scale. Not long 
ago the undersigned had a conversation 
with a distinguished foreign engineer 
who Is thoroughly posted upon Isthmian 
Canal matters, and who had the advan- 
tage of \-l8ltlng the Isthmus himself. He 
had no official connection with the canal. 
His views are so Interesting as to be 
worth quoting. In effect he said: 

Tou Amcrlcsns are thought to be a prac- 
tical people, but you have not proved It 
Id the Isthmian Canal matter. If 'your pur- 
pose was the building of a cheap lock canal, 
why did you not take the Nicaragua route? 
Although four time* longer than the Pana- 
ma Canal, It Is one d.^y'* sailing nearer to 
your shores. It tias a salubrious climate, ad 
unfaiUriC water supply from a very big 



Cenai always safe on our side of the ffleb^ 
and our commerce to the Padfio cannot b* 
affected as yours would be. 

Tlie writer confesses that he shares 
most of these views. In respect of earth* 
quakes let the report of the first Isthmian 
Canal Commission speak for itself. (Fags 
113.) 

For Panama the records show twenty- 
eight earthquakes. Of these twelve oc- 
curred lu the three years. 1S82. 18S3. 1884. 
which Illustrates the incompleteness of the 
record as a whole. The only one that could 
be called destructive was that of 1B21, 
which destroyed nearly all the houses In 
Panama. The next most severe was that of 
Sept. 7. 1SK2, During thla earthquake a 
part of the front of the cathedral In Pan- 
ama was thrown down and the head- 
quarters building of the canal company In 
Panama was cracked; the railroad had lis 
track and roadbed In places thrown out of 
line, and the masonry of three or four 
bridges and culverts was damaged; at iJis 
Cruces the church was thrown down, at 
Colon some lives were lost and crevasses 
opened, and the Jamaica telegraph cable 
was broken. 

Further, on Page 114. the report says: 
•• It Is possible that a fissure might open 
which would drain the (lock) canal, and 
if It remained open might destroy It." 

But after making this admission ths 
report adds the astounding conclusion! 
" This possibility should not be erected, 
by the fancy Into a threatening danger." 
That was written in 1901. before thS 
catastrophic earthquakes at Kingston and 
San Francisco— both within the ralddls 
American region of frequent seismic dis- 
turbances—had furnished awful reminders 
of the Incalculable forces slumbering lit 
that part of the earth crust. 

Let it be admitted that the earth dam* 
for the look canal can safely be built. IS' 
It not absurd to assert confidently that 
they will not be injured by earthquakes T 
Can any one foretell that earthquakes at 
Panama from now on will always be gen- 
tle and harmless? Let the chances for »■ 
hard shake be only one In 300 years. Is 
it not the duty of the engineer to design. 
If practicable, his canal so . that it wlU 
not be destroyed? 

Answer to these questions has beeiti 
made by the lock canal engineers. It is- 
to the effect that an earthquake whlcBci 
would destroy the lock canal would like- 
wise destroy the sea-level canal; that IP 
the dams for tlie lock canal sh6uld break, 
the dam at Gamboa, needed for the sea- 
level canal (to hold back the flood water< 
of the Chagres Klver) would also breakv< 
But there Is a difference. The dams fo*' 
the lock canal are of earth. They can* 
not be of anything e' If one of them 
should be fissured, it would be washed 
away, and the canal would ba destroyed. 
The dam at Gamboa, on the other hand, 
would be on a rock foundation, and would 
either be of reinforced masonry, or an 
earth dam with a core of reinforced con- 
crete. Such dams may crack and leak 
Imdly; but they cannot crumble away as 
earth dams do; the leakage would go Into' 






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X- TC 777 



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'> 



The Sea-Level Plan for the Panama Canal 



' littcn for The New Tork Times by an Eminent Engineer. 



he 

lie The :ea-level plan for a ship canal 
mlt across the Isthmus of Panama provides a 
.Igh clear and unobstructed waterway from 
by deep water In Limon Bay. on which Co- 
\ate 'on Is located, to tidewater on the I'aciflc 
the "'"Je of the Isthmus, as contemplated and 
In laid down by the majority of the Inter- 
national Board of Consulting Engineers 
In 1906. There are a number of experi- 
enced engineers who after extended 
studies of the subject believe that tidal 
locks are not needed at the Pacific end 
of the canal whero the rangre of tide may 
vary from nine or ten feet to po-s-iibly 
twcntj'-two feet as a maximum, but the 
majority of the International board be- 
lieved it to be prudent and safe to contem- 
plate the construction of such locks, and 
1 1 Included them In the estimate of cost 
which they submitted. They recognized 
and stated, however, that the gates of 
those locks would be wide open at least 
half of the time, thus affording abso- 
lutely unobstructed navigation from one 
ocean to the other. The range of tide 
at Colon Is scarcely more than a toot 
and a half, but It Is to meet the condi- 
tions at the Pacific end of the canal that 
the tidal locks are contemplated. The 
construction now in progress of the four- 
mile sea-level section of canal between 
Pedro Miguel and La Boca will afford by 
the action of the tides In It some Big- 
nlflcant data bearing upon this point. 

The report of the international board 
sets forth with great fullness and perfect 
clearness the advantages of the sea-level 
plan, and it Is not necessary to restale 
many of them In such a paper as this, 
but there have been so many erroneous 
statements, misstatements, exaggerations, 
and even grotesque allusions to physical 
and other conditions existing on the Isth- 
mus as affecting the sea-level plan, that 
a restatement of some of Its principal 
features Is now necessary. 

fin the letter of transmittal of the report 
of the international board by the then 
Secretary of War to the President, and 
In H number of public documents, the sea- 
level canal has been described as " tor- 
ftuous" and "winding" among the hills 
through which the route Is located across 
the Isthmus. As a matter of fact, the 
^ routes of both sea-level and lack plans 
■ gay be considered Identical from end to 
tfhout sensible error. If one route 
•is or winding the other Is 
'he proposed sea-Ievel route 
v>f carvntutvu wliilH tlie 
las about the same. As 
- ittCt, the lock-canal route Is 
. ■ crooked and has more angular 
j^, j change of direction between Bohlo and 

■fir 

m 

•bo 

Of 

tat 



« 



Ine 



Pedro Miguel than the sea-level route 

The feature of eas» curves embodied 
in the proposed sea-level plan Is that 
found in the existing Kiel sea-level canal, 
in the Manchester lock canal, and In the 
Suez sea-level canal. The Kiel Canal has 
8.10 degrees of change of direction In 
fifty-four miles, while the Suei has 530 

degrees of curv-ature in 104 miles, only 11 ...„ .„.,„ „„ „„^„ ,^,^^„, ^. 

per cent. less than the sea-level plan. It tween Gamboa and Bohlo, 1. «.. the Caiio 
should also be remembered at this point 1 Quebrada and the Gigante, coWd readily 



able passage of our battleship fleet 
through the Suez Canal in a few hours. 

Again statistics show that in the four 
years 1004 to 1907 an average of 4,150 
ships of all classes, including the largest 
battleships, passed through the Suea 
Canal, or 11 per day. all of which made a 
safe and quick transit, and they are doing 
It every day In the year in increased num- 
bers. 

In the supplement to hearings before the 
sub-eommittee of the House Committee 
on Appropriations it is stated in the esti- 
mate of cost of Uie sea-level canal, sub- 
mitted apparently by the Chairman of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission, that the pro- 
posed sea-level plan " will furnish a two- 
way canal for sm.ill vessels, but a single 
way for vessels of the Mauretania class, 
and for war vessels with 83- foot beam or 
over.' This Is grossly misleading. It 
has already been shown that the water 
section of the sea-level plan la substan- 
tially greater than that of any of the 
three largest ship c.inals In the worFd. 
As a matter of fact, it Is a two-way canal 
for practically all of the ships which 
would seek it at the time of its comple- 
tion and for a considerable period there- 
after, except for the battleships of 83-foot 
beam or over. Inasmuch sis vessels of 
the latter class would rarely. It ever, need 
to pass through the canal at the same 
time In opposite directions, this single ex- 
ception practically disappears. It 1^» 
again, a comparatively simple detail to 
construct passing places whenever needed, 
but a lock forever bars the passage of 
vessels with dimensions greater than 
either Its usable length or breadth, as 
would be the case even at the date of 
completion of the lock canal. 

Some extraordinary statements have 
been made regarding the alleged lack of 
control of the Chagres River in the s«a< 
level plan, both during construction and 
after completion, and in regard to alleged 
currents in the prism of the canal, partly 
due to the Inflow into the canal of cer- 
tain small streams, found cljlefly between 
Qamboa and Bohlo. All of these state- 
ments are without any material founda^. 
tion. The control of the Chagres River 
and of the inflow of all the tributary 
streams between Gamboa and Bohlo 
and throughout all other stretches of. 
the entire length of the canal, was most 
carefully and ettectlveiy studied an'! prfl^, 
vlded for by the majority of the *^' ^^ 
nauonai board, by the most prouw 
canal engineers of the world, and the on. 
engineers on that board who have had 
actual experience In the construction, 
maintenance, and operation of ship ca- 
nals, both with and without locks. II 
was considered the best engineering pro' 
cedure to take the flow of the Chagrea 
at Gamboa Into the canal under perfect 
controL It was also considered permis- 
sible to take into the canal the small 
tributary streams throughout the entire 
length of the canal; hut inasmuch as the 
two largest of these small streams be- 



that either mode of treating the curves 
may be used in the sea-level plan. 

Much objection has been made to the 
size of the waterway proposed in the sea- 
level plan. A minimum depth of forty 
feet was assumed by the majority as the 



and economically be made to reverse their 
flows out of the basin of the Chagres Into 
that of the Trinidad by dams placed at 
short distances from the Chagres, It was 
decided to follow that procedure. It is 
not necessary here to reneat wh«» !. 



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